Windows maintains a base of icons, not load them from the source. If you see white shortcuts on the desktop, the system most likely could not load them due to a corrupted cache. This tutorial discusses how you can fix the blank desktop icons in Windows 11 by deleting the IconCache.
Steps to Fix Blank White Desktop Shortcut Icons in Windows 11
Step 1: Press the Win + R key combination and enter %userprofile%\AppData\Local
Step 2: Next, click on the “View” tab and check the “Hidden items” box
Step 3: Delete the IconCache.db file
Step 4: Next, press Win + R and paste the given path
Step 5: Delete all files and content in the Explorer folder
Step 6: Reboot your computer.